Ingrown Toenail: causes and treatments

Ingrown Toenails

An ingrown toenail (Onychocryptosis) is a common discomfort that involves the nail curving down, into the surround skin as it grows.

 

Interestingly, ingrown toenails are absent in cultures who go barefoot, but that isn't an option for most of us in Southern California.

 

Most prevalent in the big toe, ingrown toenails can be painful, display redness, swelling and infection (yellow drainage). Ingrown toenails frequently resolve without medical treatment, however, chronic or complicated cases may require treatment by a physician.

 

We realize this condition can be both painful and unsightly. Accurate diagnosis and treatment are the hallmarks of University Foot and Ankle Institute care.

Ingrown toenail treaments

What Causes an Ingrown Toenail?

Painful ingrown nails may be congenital. In this instance they are caused by an over-curvature of the nail, or imbalance between the width of the nail plate and nail bed.

 

Toe injuries that change the nail's contour may also lead to an ingrown toenail. Toe deformities (such as a bunion that forces the big toe to lean toward the second toe), high-heeled or narrow, pointed shoes can put pressure between the nail and soft tissues, eventually forcing the nail to grow into the skin. Poor nail-care such as trimming the nail too short, rounding it at the tip or peeling the nail off at the edges can cause an ingrown nail.

 

It should be noted that ill-fitting shoes are the number one offender of ingrown toenails.

 

Conservative Treatment for an Ingrown Toenail

Conservative treatment for ingrown nails includes warm saltwater soaks, antibacterial ointment and providing a track for the nail to begin to grow.

 

Ingrown Toenail Surgery

Surgery is often necessary to ease the pain and remove the offending nail. Only a portion of the nail may be removed. If the entire nail is affected or there is a severe nail deformity, the nail plate and matrix (the cells that grow the nail) may be completely removed.

 

Partial nail removal

For some cases of ingrown nails, only the portion of nail that is growing into the skin is removed. If both sides of the nail are ingrown, they may be removed during one procedure.

 

After the affected portion of nail (one-eighth to one-quarter inch) is taken, the nail bed is removed along with any enlarged tissue adjacent to the nail plate. The nail root and matrix are then destroyed by phenol, surgical removal or laser heat. Finally, the skin may be remodeled around the nail.

 

Permanent Nail Removal

Complete removal of the nail plate is a common remedy for ingrown nails. During this procedure, the nail plate is removed and the nail matrix is destroyed by one of three methods:

  • Phenol - An acidic chemical called phenol is applied only to the nail matrix. This destroys the growth cells of the nail.
  • Surgical removal - The nail matrix and bed is cut away. Stitches are only occasionally necessary.
  • Laser - A form of burning in which laser heat is focused on the matrix cells.

 

After surgery to permanently remove the nail plate, the body generates a hardened skin covering over the sensitive nail bed. When this covering has developed, normal activities can be resumed. Women can also use nail polish on this area.

 

Removal of Bone Overgrowth

Bone directly beneath the nail plate may become enlarged, developing a spur or outgrowth that can deform the nail plate or lead to an ingrown nail. Removal of excess bone may be performed concurrently with surgery to partially or permanently remove the nail plate.

 

What is Ingrown Toenail Surgery Recovery Like?

Most people experience very little pain immediately following nail surgery, and during the healing process, which lasts about two to three weeks. If bone has been removed during surgery, a longer healing process should be anticipated.

 

University Foot and Ankle Institute, Your Best Treatment Choice for all Toe Nail Conditions

Our podiatrists have extensive experience diagnosing and treating ingrown toenails. We realize this condition can be both painful and unsightly. Accurate diagnosis and treatment are the hallmarks of University Foot and Ankle Institute care.

 

 

Frequently Asked Questions about Ingrown Toenails and Toenail Removal

 

Q: If it is determined that I should have my toe nail removed, how long will the process take?

A: Generally, it will take our doctor an hour or less to perform the procedure.

 

Q: What is the recovery time and procedure

 

A: The recovery is about one week and all you need to wear is a band aid.

 

Q: Is toenail removal generally covered by insurance?

A: Yes, in many cases it is. University Foot and Ankle Institute accepts close to 1000 different insurance plans. You can check our insurance page  to see if yours is among them.

 

If you do not see your plan please call the office at (877) 989-9110 and tell them what your plan is and they can confirm if we accept it.

 

 

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